Question: What Type Of Cells Are Most Sensitive To Radiation Damage?

What does radiation feel like?

Most people feel little to no discomfort during treatment.

But some may experience weakness or nausea from the anesthesia.

You will need to take precautions to protect others from radiation exposure..

How does radiation therapy affect the cell cycle?

The cell cycle phase is important because usually radiation first kills the cells that are actively dividing. … Radiation therapy kills cancer cells that are dividing, but it also affects dividing cells of normal tissues. The damage to normal cells causes unwanted side effects.

What part of the eye is most sensitive to radiation?

lensThe most sensitive structure in the eye is the lens, which is located directly behind the pupil. The germinal layer of the lens located at the equator is the layer most sensitive to radiation.

What is the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau?

The law of Bergonie and Tribondeau is that the radiosensitivity of a biological tissue is directly proportional to the mitotic activity and inversely proportional to the degree of differentiation of its cells.

How does age affect the radiosensitivity of tissue?

It is widely believed that human radiosensitivity increases with age due to an increase of oxidative stress, telomere attrition, a decline in DNA damage response efficiency and inflammatory response [1, 2]. Especially DNA double stand break repair seems to be affected.

What is somatic effects of radiation?

Somatic effects of radiation. Effects of radiation limited to the exposed individual, as distinguished from genetic effects, that may also affect subsequent unexposed generations.

Can animals survive radiation?

Radioresistance is the level of ionizing radiation that organisms are able to withstand. … For example, the study of environment, animals and plants around the Chernobyl disaster area has revealed an unexpected survival of many species, despite the high radiation levels.

What types of cells are most sensitive to radiation damage quizlet?

Cells that divide very rapidly (spermatozoa and lymphocytes) are extremely sensitive to radiation because they are in the metaphase stage of mitosis more often.

Which phase of cell cycle is most sensitive to radiation?

Cells in late G2 and mitosis (M-phase) are the most sensitive to radiation, and cells in late synthesis (S-phase) are the most resistant (Fig. 23.10). This is exploited with chemotherapies such as paclitaxel, which arrests cells in mitosis and is a profound radiation sensitizer.

What organs are affected by radiation?

Let’s do a head-to-toe walk-through to investigate how high doses of radiation can damage the human body.Brain. Nerve cells (neurons) and brain blood vessels can die, leading to seizures.Eyes. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cataracts.Thyroid. … Lungs. … Heart. … GI tract. … Reproductive organs. … Skin.More items…•

Which type of cell and in which cell cycle phase is the DNA of that cell type most susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation?

HeLa cells in M phase were the most sensitive to X-ray cell killing, G1 and G2 were the most radioresistant, and S-phase cells were intermediately sensitive. These results have been reproduced in other mammalian cell lines generally yielding the same variation in cell cycle radiosensitivity (8).

What are stochastic effects of radiation?

Stochastic effects. Effects that occur by chance and which may occur without a threshold level of dose, whose probability is proportional to the dose and whose severity is independent of the dose. In the context of radiation protection, the main stochastic effect is cancer.

Which organ is least sensitive to radiation?

Amongst the body cells, the most sensitive are spermatogonia and erythroblasts, epidermal stem cells, gastrointestinal stem cells. The least sensitive are nerve cells and muscle fibers.

What is the first sign of too much radiation?

Symptoms of radiation sickness may include: Weakness, fatigue, fainting, confusion. Bleeding from the nose, mouth, gums, and rectum. Bruising, skin burns, open sores on the skin, sloughing of skin.

What is the most common acute side effect of radiation treatment?

Fatigue is the most common acute side effect of radiation therapy. It is believed to be caused by the tremendous amount of energy that is used by the body to heal itself in response to radiation therapy. Most people begin to feel fatigued about 2 weeks after radiation treatments begin.

Which organ is most radiosensitive?

The most radiosensitive organs in humans are the testes and the ovaries. The other highly radiosensitive cells are the lymphocytes (one of the white blood cells).

Why are rapidly dividing cells more sensitive to radiation?

Tissues that are made up of rapidly dividing cells are similarly radiation-sensitive. … Cells that are fully oxygenated tend to be more sensitive than those that are less well-oxygenated. The reasons for this will be discussed later in the lecture.

Are some people more sensitive to radiation?

Some people are more sensitive to harmful effects of radiation than others. There are a number of factors that influence an individual’s sensitivity to radiation. These factors include age, gender, other exposures and genetic factors. Age – In general, exposed children are more at risk than adults.

Which of the following tissues is the most highly radiosensitive?

The cells in the bone marrow are undifferentiated, well nourished, dividing quickly and highly active metabolically and hence are the most radiosensitive cells of the body.

What are deterministic effects of radiation?

Deterministic effect. Health effects, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Deterministic effects generally result from the receipt of a relatively high dose over a short time period.

Which tissues are most affected by ionizing radiation?

The tissues most affected by radiation are those that undergo rapid replacement, such as bone marrow, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Slower-growing tissues, such as those of the brain and liver, require either high doses of radiation or prolonged exposure before they show symptoms of degeneration.